CS 105: Introduction to Computer Science

October 10, 2001

On December 28, 1903 John von Neumann was born the son of a well-to-do banker, Max Neumann, in Budapest, Hungary. Von Neumann showed signs of intellectual genius at an early age. By age 6 he was dividing eight digit numbers and speaking ancient Greek. At eight, he could do calculus and would show off his photographic memory by memorizing whole pages of a Budapest telephone directory and later recite the entire list. In 1921 John collaborated with an assistant at the University of Budapest to write his first paper, which was ironic since he enrolled at this university in the same year, but never attended the lectures. Meanwhile he was also enrolled at the University of Berlin pursuing a chemistry degree. By the age of twenty von Neumann had published a definition of ordinal numbers that is still in use today. At twenty-two von Neumann had acquired a chemical engineering diploma from the distinguished ETH in Zurich, a Ph.D. from the University of Budapest in mathematics (summa cum laude), and two minors in experimental physics and chemistry from the University of Budapest. (Regis)

"Johnny was the only student I was ever afraid of. If in the course of a lecture I stated an unsolved problem, the chances were he'd come to me as soon as the lecture was over, with the complete solution in a few scribbles on a slip of paper." -Polya (O'Connor and Robertson)

After receiving his diplomas von Neumann lectured at the University of Berlin from 1926 until 1929 and in Hamburg from 1929 to 1930. He was already being considered as a young genius in the mathematics world when he was invited to lecture on quantum theory in 1929 at Princeton by Oswald Veblen. So John married his fiancée, Marietta Kovesi, and came to America. By 1931 von Neumann became a full-time professor at Princeton only later to move in 1933 to the Institute of Advanced Study where he stayed for the remainder of his life. He was one of the original six professors here which included the famous Albert Einstein. In 1932 von Neumann published his first book, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics which attempted to give a consistent mathematical description of the atom, a problem that perplexed leading scholars of this era.

"His fluid line of thought was difficult for those less gifted to follow. He was notorious for dashing out equations on a small portion of the available blackboard and erasing expressions before students could copy them." (O'Connor and Robertson)

In 1933 John became the co-editor for both the Annals of Mathematics and the
Compositio Mathematica. He held both of these positions for the remainder of his
life. The 1930's saw von Neumann's family life take quite a swing when he and
his wife Marietta had a daughter Marina, but were then divorced the following
year only for von Neumann to remarry shortly after to Klara Dan. In 1938 von
Neumann was awarded the Bocher Prize by the American Mathematical Society. Von Neumann
studied, taught, developed, and advanced the measure theory, statistical
mechanics, quantum mechanics, and the game theory to name a few. Von Neumann
also served as a consultant to the armed forces during World War II. He belonged
to an extensive list of academies in addition to the extensive list of awards he
received throughout his remarkable brilliant life. Despite all John von
Neumann's genius he could not escape death. On February 8, 1957 he succumbed to
incurable cancer.

In addition to the numerous accomplishments and various studies mentioned
above von Neumann was a pioneer in the computer industry. Von Neumann played a
significant part in the development and advancement of computers, in
particularly with the logical design.

"Von Neumann spent a considerable part
of the last few years of his life working in [automata theory]. It represented
for him a synthesis of his early interest in logic and proof theory and his
later work, during World War II and after, on large scale electronic computers.
Involving a mixture of pure and applied mathematics as well as other sciences,
automata theory was an ideal field for von Neumann's wide-ranging intellect. He
brought to it many new insights and opened up at least two new directions of
research. He advanced the theory of cellular automata, advocated the adoption of
the bit as a measurement of computer memory, and solved problems in obtaining
reliable answers from unreliable computer components." (O'Connor and
Robertson)

Von Neumann first became involved with computers in his dealings
with the ENIAC.
The origins for the idea of stored programming are disputed, but for the large
part von Neumann seems to get the credit. This is largely because he desired to
put the programming inside the computer in the form of electrical charges and
impulses. This was radical thought at a time when punchcards and tapes were in
use.

So, taking matters into his own hands von Neumann, with the approval of
the Institute began work on his computer. He completed this stored-program
computer which used a series of ones and zeros rather than the customary BASIC
or Pascal. Nevertheless von Neumann had created the idea of stored programming
that was considerably before is time. (Regis)

John von Neumann was not the only pioneer of this time period in the computer industry. Kay Mauchly Antonelli, Alan Turing, and Konrad Zuse all played an important role in the development of the what we now know as the modern computer.

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**BIBLIOGRAPHY**

O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. John von Neumann. (2001, September).
JOC/EFR June 1998. Available

http://www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Von_Neumann.html

John von Neumann. 1903-1957 (2001, September) Microsoft Encarta 96. Available http://www.brunel.ac.uk:8080/depts/AI/alife/al-vonne.htm

Regis, Ed. Who got Einstein's Office. Addison-Wesley, 1987.